asm_backend.rs 81.5 KB
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#![allow(unused_variables)]

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use compiler::backend;
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use compiler::backend::AOT_EMIT_CONTEXT_FILE;
use compiler::backend::AOT_EMIT_DIR;
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use compiler::backend::RegGroup;
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use utils::ByteSize;
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use compiler::backend::x86_64;
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use compiler::backend::x86_64::CodeGenerator;
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use compiler::machine_code::MachineCode;
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use vm::VM;
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use runtime::ValueLocation;
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use utils::vec_utils;
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use utils::string_utils;
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use ast::ptr::P;
use ast::ir::*;

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use std::collections::HashMap;
use std::str;
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use std::usize;
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use std::slice::Iter;
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use std::ops;
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struct ASMCode {
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    name: MuName, 
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    code: Vec<ASMInst>,
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    blocks: HashMap<MuName, ASMBlock>,

    frame_size_patchpoints: Vec<ASMLocation>
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}

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unsafe impl Send for ASMCode {} 
unsafe impl Sync for ASMCode {}

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impl ASMCode {
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    fn get_use_locations(&self, reg: MuID) -> Vec<ASMLocation> {
        let mut ret = vec![];

        for inst in self.code.iter() {
            match inst.uses.get(&reg) {
                Some(ref locs) => {
                    ret.append(&mut locs.to_vec());
                },
                None => {}
            }
        }

        ret
    }

    fn get_define_locations(&self, reg: MuID) -> Vec<ASMLocation> {
        let mut ret = vec![];

        for inst in self.code.iter() {
            match inst.defines.get(&reg) {
                Some(ref locs) => {
                    ret.append(&mut locs.to_vec());
                },
                None => {}
            }
        }

        ret
    }

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    fn is_block_start(&self, inst: usize) -> bool {
        for block in self.blocks.values() {
            if block.start_inst == inst {
                return true;
            }
        }
        false
    }

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    fn is_block_end(&self, inst: usize) -> bool {
        for block in self.blocks.values() {
            if block.end_inst == inst + 1 {
                return true;
            }
        }
        false
    }

    fn get_block_by_inst(&self, inst: usize) -> (&String, &ASMBlock) {
        for (name, block) in self.blocks.iter() {
            if inst >= block.start_inst && inst < block.end_inst {
                return (name, block);
            }
        }

        panic!("didnt find any block for inst {}", inst)
    }

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    fn get_block_by_start_inst(&self, inst: usize) -> Option<&ASMBlock> {
        for block in self.blocks.values() {
            if block.start_inst == inst {
                return Some(block);
            }
        }

        None
    }

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    fn rewrite_insert(
        &self,
        insert_before: HashMap<usize, Vec<Box<ASMCode>>>,
        insert_after: HashMap<usize, Vec<Box<ASMCode>>>) -> Box<ASMCode>
    {
        let mut ret = ASMCode {
            name: self.name.clone(),
            code: vec![],
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            blocks: hashmap!{},
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            frame_size_patchpoints: vec![]
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        };

        // iterate through old machine code
        let mut inst_offset = 0;    // how many instructions has been inserted
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        let mut cur_block_start = usize::MAX;
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        // inst N in old machine code is N' in new machine code
        // this map stores the relationship
        let mut location_map : HashMap<usize, usize> = HashMap::new();

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        for i in 0..self.number_of_insts() {
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            if self.is_block_start(i) {
                cur_block_start = i + inst_offset;
            }

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            // insert code before this instruction
            if insert_before.contains_key(&i) {
                for insert in insert_before.get(&i).unwrap() {
                    ret.append_code_sequence_all(insert);
                    inst_offset += insert.number_of_insts();
                }
            }

            // copy this instruction
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            let mut inst = self.code[i].clone();

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            // old ith inst is now the (i + inst_offset)th instruction
            location_map.insert(i, i + inst_offset);

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            // this instruction has been offset by several instructions('inst_offset')
            // update its info
            // 1. fix defines and uses
            for locs in inst.defines.values_mut() {
                for loc in locs {
                    debug_assert!(loc.line == i);
                    loc.line += inst_offset;
                }
            }
            for locs in inst.uses.values_mut() {
                for loc in locs {
                    debug_assert!(loc.line == i);
                    loc.line += inst_offset;
                }
            }
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            // 2. we need to delete existing preds/succs - CFA is required later
            inst.preds.clear();
            inst.succs.clear();
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            // 3. add the inst
            ret.code.push(inst);
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            // insert code after this instruction
            if insert_after.contains_key(&i) {
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                for insert in insert_after.get(&i).unwrap() {
                    ret.append_code_sequence_all(insert);
                    inst_offset += insert.number_of_insts();
                }
            }

            if self.is_block_end(i) {
                let cur_block_end = i + inst_offset;
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                // copy the block
                let (name, block) = self.get_block_by_inst(i);

                let mut new_block = block.clone();
                new_block.start_inst = cur_block_start;
                cur_block_start = usize::MAX;
                new_block.end_inst = cur_block_end;

                // add to the new code
                ret.blocks.insert(name.clone(), new_block);
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            }
        }

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        // fix patchpoint
        for patchpoint in self.frame_size_patchpoints.iter() {
            let new_patchpoint = ASMLocation {
                line: *location_map.get(&patchpoint.line).unwrap(),
                index: patchpoint.index,
                len: patchpoint.len
            };

            ret.frame_size_patchpoints.push(new_patchpoint);
        }

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        ret.control_flow_analysis();

        Box::new(ret)
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    }

    fn append_code_sequence(
        &mut self,
        another: &Box<ASMCode>,
        start_inst: usize,
        n_insts: usize)
    {
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        let base_line = self.number_of_insts();

        for i in 0..n_insts {
            let cur_line_in_self = base_line + i;
            let cur_line_from_copy = start_inst + i;

            let mut inst = another.code[cur_line_from_copy].clone();

            // fix info
            for locs in inst.defines.values_mut() {
                for loc in locs {
                    debug_assert!(loc.line == i);
                    loc.line = cur_line_in_self;
                }
            }
            for locs in inst.uses.values_mut() {
                for loc in locs {
                    debug_assert!(loc.line == i);
                    loc.line = cur_line_in_self;
                }
            }
            // ignore preds/succs

            // add to self
            self.code.push(inst);
        }
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    }

    fn append_code_sequence_all(&mut self, another: &Box<ASMCode>) {
        let n_insts = another.number_of_insts();
        self.append_code_sequence(another, 0, n_insts)
    }
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    fn control_flow_analysis(&mut self) {
        const TRACE_CFA : bool = false;

        // control flow analysis
        let n_insts = self.number_of_insts();

        let ref blocks = self.blocks;
        let ref mut asm = self.code;

        let block_start = {
            let mut ret = vec![];
            for block in blocks.values() {
                ret.push(block.start_inst);
            }
            ret
        };

        for i in 0..n_insts {
            // determine predecessor - if cur is not block start, its predecessor is previous insts
            let is_block_start = block_start.contains(&i);
            if !is_block_start {
                if i > 0 {
                    if TRACE_CFA {
                        trace!("inst {}: not a block start", i);
                        trace!("inst {}: set PREDS as previous inst {}", i, i - 1);
                    }
                    asm[i].preds.push(i - 1);
                }
            } else {
                // if cur is a branch target, we already set its predecessor
                // if cur is a fall-through block, we set it in a sanity check pass
            }

            // determine successor
            let branch = asm[i].branch.clone();
            match branch {
                ASMBranchTarget::Unconditional(ref target) => {
                    // branch to target
                    let target_n = self.blocks.get(target).unwrap().start_inst;

                    // cur inst's succ is target
                    asm[i].succs.push(target_n);

                    // target's pred is cur
                    asm[target_n].preds.push(i);

                    if TRACE_CFA {
                        trace!("inst {}: is a branch to {}", i, target);
                        trace!("inst {}: branch target index is {}", i, target_n);
                        trace!("inst {}: set SUCCS as branch target {}", i, target_n);
                        trace!("inst {}: set PREDS as branch source {}", target_n, i);
                    }
                },
                ASMBranchTarget::Conditional(ref target) => {
                    // branch to target
                    let target_n = self.blocks.get(target).unwrap().start_inst;

                    // cur insts' succ is target and next inst
                    asm[i].succs.push(target_n);

                    if TRACE_CFA {
                        trace!("inst {}: is a cond branch to {}", i, target);
                        trace!("inst {}: branch target index is {}", i, target_n);
                        trace!("inst {}: set SUCCS as branch target {}", i, target_n);
                    }

                    if i < n_insts - 1 {
                        if TRACE_CFA {
                            trace!("inst {}: set SUCCS as next inst", i + 1);
                        }
                        asm[i].succs.push(i + 1);
                    }

                    // target's pred is cur
                    asm[target_n].preds.push(i);
                    if TRACE_CFA {
                        trace!("inst {}: set PREDS as {}", target_n, i);
                    }
                },
                ASMBranchTarget::None => {
                    // not branch nor cond branch, succ is next inst
                    if TRACE_CFA {
                        trace!("inst {}: not a branch inst", i);
                    }
                    if i < n_insts - 1 {
                        if TRACE_CFA {
                            trace!("inst {}: set SUCCS as next inst {}", i, i + 1);
                        }
                        asm[i].succs.push(i + 1);
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        // a sanity check for fallthrough blocks
        for i in 0..n_insts {
            if i != 0 && asm[i].preds.len() == 0 {
                asm[i].preds.push(i - 1);
            }
        }
    }
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    fn add_frame_size_patchpoint(&mut self, patchpoint: ASMLocation) {
        self.frame_size_patchpoints.push(patchpoint);
    }
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}

use std::any::Any;

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impl MachineCode for ASMCode {
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    fn as_any(&self) -> &Any {
        self
    }
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    fn number_of_insts(&self) -> usize {
        self.code.len()
    }
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    fn is_move(&self, index: usize) -> bool {
        let inst = self.code.get(index);
        match inst {
            Some(inst) => inst.code.starts_with("mov"),
            None => false
        }
    }
    
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    fn is_using_mem_op(&self, index: usize) -> bool {
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        self.code[index].is_mem_op_used
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    }
    
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    fn get_succs(&self, index: usize) -> &Vec<usize> {
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        &self.code[index].succs
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    }
    
    fn get_preds(&self, index: usize) -> &Vec<usize> {
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        &self.code[index].preds
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    }
    
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    fn get_inst_reg_uses(&self, index: usize) -> Vec<MuID> {
        self.code[index].uses.keys().map(|x| *x).collect()
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    }
    
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    fn get_inst_reg_defines(&self, index: usize) -> Vec<MuID> {
        self.code[index].defines.keys().map(|x| *x).collect()
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    }
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    fn replace_reg(&mut self, from: MuID, to: MuID) {
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        let to_reg_tag : MuName = match backend::all_regs().get(&to) {
            Some(reg) => reg.name().unwrap(),
            None => panic!("expecting a machine register, but we are required to replace to {}", to)
        };
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        let to_reg_string = "%".to_string() + &to_reg_tag;
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        for loc in self.get_define_locations(from) {
            let ref mut inst_to_patch = self.code[loc.line];
            for i in 0..loc.len {
                // FIXME: why loop here?
                string_utils::replace(&mut inst_to_patch.code, loc.index, &to_reg_string, to_reg_string.len());
            }
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        }
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        for loc in self.get_use_locations(from) {
            let ref mut inst_to_patch = self.code[loc.line];
            for i in 0..loc.len {
                string_utils::replace(&mut inst_to_patch.code, loc.index, &to_reg_string, to_reg_string.len());
            }
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        }
    }
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    fn replace_define_tmp_for_inst(&mut self, from: MuID, to: MuID, inst: usize) {
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        let to_reg_string : MuName = match backend::all_regs().get(&to) {
            Some(ref machine_reg) => {
                let name = machine_reg.name().unwrap();
                "%".to_string() + &name
            },
            None => REG_PLACEHOLDER.clone()
        };

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        let asm = &mut self.code[inst];
        // if this reg is defined, replace the define
        if asm.defines.contains_key(&from) {
            let define_locs = asm.defines.get(&from).unwrap().to_vec();
            // replace temps
            for loc in define_locs.iter() {
                for i in 0..loc.len {
                    string_utils::replace(&mut asm.code, loc.index, &to_reg_string, to_reg_string.len());
                }
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            }

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            // remove old key, insert new one
            asm.defines.remove(&from);
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            asm.defines.insert(to, define_locs);
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        }
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    }

    fn replace_use_tmp_for_inst(&mut self, from: MuID, to: MuID, inst: usize) {
        let to_reg_string : MuName = match backend::all_regs().get(&to) {
            Some(ref machine_reg) => {
                let name = machine_reg.name().unwrap();
                "%".to_string() + &name
            },
            None => REG_PLACEHOLDER.clone()
        };

        let asm = &mut self.code[inst];
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        // if this reg is used, replace the use
        if asm.uses.contains_key(&from) {
            let use_locs = asm.uses.get(&from).unwrap().to_vec();
            // replace temps
            for loc in use_locs.iter() {
                for i in 0..loc.len {
                    string_utils::replace(&mut asm.code, loc.index, &to_reg_string, to_reg_string.len());
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                }
            }

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            // remove old key, insert new one
            asm.uses.remove(&from);
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            asm.uses.insert(to, use_locs);
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        }
    }
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    fn set_inst_nop(&mut self, index: usize) {
        self.code.remove(index);
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        self.code.insert(index, ASMInst::nop());
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    }
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    fn remove_unnecessary_callee_saved(&mut self, used_callee_saved: Vec<MuID>) -> Vec<MuID> {
        // we always save rbp
        let rbp = x86_64::RBP.extract_ssa_id().unwrap();
        // every push/pop will use/define rsp
        let rsp = x86_64::RSP.extract_ssa_id().unwrap();

        let find_op_other_than_rsp = |inst: &ASMInst| -> Option<MuID> {
            for id in inst.defines.keys() {
                if *id != rsp && *id != rbp {
                    return Some(*id);
                }
            }
            for id in inst.uses.keys() {
                if *id != rsp && *id != rbp {
                    return Some(*id);
                }
            }

            None
        };

        let mut inst_to_remove = vec![];
        let mut regs_to_remove = vec![];

        for i in 0..self.number_of_insts() {
            let ref inst = self.code[i];

            if inst.code.contains("push") || inst.code.contains("pop") {
                match find_op_other_than_rsp(inst) {
                    Some(op) => {
                        // if this push/pop instruction is about a callee saved register
                        // and the register is not used, we set the instruction as nop
                        if x86_64::is_callee_saved(op) && !used_callee_saved.contains(&op) {
                            trace!("removing instruction {:?} for save/restore unnecessary callee saved regs", inst);
                            regs_to_remove.push(op);
                            inst_to_remove.push(i);
                        }
                    }
                    None => {}
                }
            }
        }

        for i in inst_to_remove {
            self.set_inst_nop(i);
        }

        regs_to_remove
    }
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    fn patch_frame_size(&mut self, size: usize) {
        let size = size.to_string();

        debug_assert!(size.len() <= FRAME_SIZE_PLACEHOLDER_LEN);

        for loc in self.frame_size_patchpoints.iter() {
            let ref mut inst = self.code[loc.line];

            string_utils::replace(&mut inst.code, loc.index, &size, size.len());
        }
    }
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    fn emit(&self) -> Vec<u8> {
        let mut ret = vec![];
        
        for inst in self.code.iter() {
            ret.append(&mut inst.code.clone().into_bytes());
            ret.append(&mut "\n".to_string().into_bytes());
        }
        
        ret
    }
    
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    fn trace_mc(&self) {
        trace!("");
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        trace!("code for {}: \n", self.name);
        
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        let n_insts = self.code.len();
        for i in 0..n_insts {
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            self.trace_inst(i);
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        }
        
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        trace!("")      
    }
    
    fn trace_inst(&self, i: usize) {
        trace!("#{}\t{:30}\t\tdefine: {:?}\tuses: {:?}\tpred: {:?}\tsucc: {:?}", 
            i, self.code[i].code, self.get_inst_reg_defines(i), self.get_inst_reg_uses(i),
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            self.code[i].preds, self.code[i].succs);
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    }
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    fn get_ir_block_livein(&self, block: &str) -> Option<&Vec<MuID>> {
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        match self.blocks.get(block) {
            Some(ref block) => Some(&block.livein),
            None => None
        }
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    }
    
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    fn get_ir_block_liveout(&self, block: &str) -> Option<&Vec<MuID>> {
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        match self.blocks.get(block) {
            Some(ref block) => Some(&block.liveout),
            None => None
        }
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    }
    
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    fn set_ir_block_livein(&mut self, block: &str, set: Vec<MuID>) {
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        let block = self.blocks.get_mut(block).unwrap();
        block.livein = set;
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    }
    
    fn set_ir_block_liveout(&mut self, block: &str, set: Vec<MuID>) {
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        let block = self.blocks.get_mut(block).unwrap();
        block.liveout = set;
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    }
    
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    fn get_all_blocks(&self) -> Vec<MuName> {
        self.blocks.keys().map(|x| x.clone()).collect()
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    }
    
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    fn get_block_range(&self, block: &str) -> Option<ops::Range<usize>> {
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        match self.blocks.get(block) {
            Some(ref block) => Some(block.start_inst..block.end_inst),
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            None => None
        }
    }
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}

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#[derive(Clone, Debug)]
enum ASMBranchTarget {
    None,
    Conditional(MuName),
    Unconditional(MuName)
}

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#[derive(Clone, Debug)]
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struct ASMInst {
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    code: String,
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    defines: HashMap<MuID, Vec<ASMLocation>>,
    uses: HashMap<MuID, Vec<ASMLocation>>,

    is_mem_op_used: bool,
    preds: Vec<usize>,
    succs: Vec<usize>,
    branch: ASMBranchTarget
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}

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impl ASMInst {
    fn symbolic(line: String) -> ASMInst {
        ASMInst {
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            code: line,
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            defines: HashMap::new(),
            uses: HashMap::new(),
            is_mem_op_used: false,
            preds: vec![],
            succs: vec![],
            branch: ASMBranchTarget::None
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        }
    }
    
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    fn inst(
        inst: String,
        defines: HashMap<MuID, Vec<ASMLocation>>,
        uses: HashMap<MuID, Vec<ASMLocation>>,
        is_mem_op_used: bool,
        target: ASMBranchTarget
    ) -> ASMInst
    {
        ASMInst {
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            code: inst,
            defines: defines,
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            uses: uses,
            is_mem_op_used: is_mem_op_used,
            preds: vec![],
            succs: vec![],
            branch: target
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        }
    }
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    fn nop() -> ASMInst {
        ASMInst {
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            code: "".to_string(),
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            defines: HashMap::new(),
            uses: HashMap::new(),
            is_mem_op_used: false,
            preds: vec![],
            succs: vec![],
            branch: ASMBranchTarget::None
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        }
    }
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}

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#[derive(Clone, Debug, PartialEq, Eq)]
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struct ASMLocation {
    line: usize,
    index: usize,
    len: usize
}

impl ASMLocation {
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    fn new(line: usize, index: usize, len: usize) -> ASMLocation {
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        ASMLocation{
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            line: line,
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            index: index,
            len: len
        }
    }
}

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#[derive(Clone, Debug)]
/// [start_inst, end_inst)
struct ASMBlock {
    start_inst: usize,
    end_inst: usize,

    livein: Vec<MuID>,
    liveout: Vec<MuID>
}

impl ASMBlock {
    fn new() -> ASMBlock {
        ASMBlock {
            start_inst: usize::MAX,
            end_inst: usize::MAX,
            livein: vec![],
            liveout: vec![]
        }
    }
}

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pub struct ASMCodeGen {
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    cur: Option<Box<ASMCode>>
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}

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const REG_PLACEHOLDER_LEN : usize = 5;
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lazy_static! {
    pub static ref REG_PLACEHOLDER : String = {
        let blank_spaces = [' ' as u8; REG_PLACEHOLDER_LEN];
        
        format!("%{}", str::from_utf8(&blank_spaces).unwrap())
    };
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}

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const FRAME_SIZE_PLACEHOLDER_LEN : usize = 10; // a frame is smaller than 1 << 10
lazy_static! {
    pub static ref FRAME_SIZE_PLACEHOLDER : String = {
        let blank_spaces = [' ' as u8; FRAME_SIZE_PLACEHOLDER_LEN];
        format!("{}", str::from_utf8(&blank_spaces).unwrap())
    };
}

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impl ASMCodeGen {
    pub fn new() -> ASMCodeGen {
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        ASMCodeGen {
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            cur: None
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        }
    }
    
    fn cur(&self) -> &ASMCode {
        self.cur.as_ref().unwrap()
    }
    
    fn cur_mut(&mut self) -> &mut ASMCode {
        self.cur.as_mut().unwrap()
    }
    
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    fn line(&self) -> usize {
        self.cur().code.len()
    }
    
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    fn add_asm_label(&mut self, code: String) {
        let l = self.line();
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        self.cur_mut().code.push(ASMInst::symbolic(code));
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    }
    
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    fn add_asm_block_label(&mut self, code: String, block_name: MuName) {
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        let l = self.line();
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        self.cur_mut().code.push(ASMInst::symbolic(code));
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    }
    
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    fn add_asm_symbolic(&mut self, code: String){
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        self.cur_mut().code.push(ASMInst::symbolic(code));
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    }
    
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    fn prepare_machine_regs(&self, regs: Iter<P<Value>>) -> Vec<MuID> {
        regs.map(|x| self.prepare_machine_reg(x)).collect()
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    }
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    fn add_asm_call(&mut self, code: String) {
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        // a call instruction will use all the argument registers
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        let mut uses : HashMap<MuID, Vec<ASMLocation>> = HashMap::new();
        for reg in x86_64::ARGUMENT_GPRs.iter() {
            uses.insert(reg.id(), vec![]);
        }
        for reg in x86_64::ARGUMENT_FPRs.iter() {
            uses.insert(reg.id(), vec![]);
        }
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        // defines: return registers
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        let mut defines : HashMap<MuID, Vec<ASMLocation>> = HashMap::new();
        for reg in x86_64::RETURN_GPRs.iter() {
            defines.insert(reg.id(), vec![]);
        }
        for reg in x86_64::RETURN_FPRs.iter() {
            defines.insert(reg.id(), vec![]);
        }
        for reg in x86_64::CALLER_SAVED_GPRs.iter() {
            if !defines.contains_key(&reg.id()) {
                defines.insert(reg.id(), vec![]);
            }
        }
        for reg in x86_64::CALLER_SAVED_FPRs.iter() {
            if !defines.contains_key(&reg.id()) {
                defines.insert(reg.id(), vec![]);
            }
        }
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        self.add_asm_inst(code, defines, uses, false);
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    }
    
    fn add_asm_ret(&mut self, code: String) {
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        let uses : HashMap<MuID, Vec<ASMLocation>> = {
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            let mut ret = HashMap::new();
            for reg in x86_64::RETURN_GPRs.iter() {
                ret.insert(reg.id(), vec![]);
            }
            for reg in x86_64::RETURN_FPRs.iter() {
                ret.insert(reg.id(), vec![]);
            }
            ret
        };
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        self.add_asm_inst(code, hashmap!{}, uses, false);
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    }
    
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    fn add_asm_branch(&mut self, code: String, target: MuName) {
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        self.add_asm_inst_internal(code, hashmap!{}, hashmap!{}, false, ASMBranchTarget::Unconditional(target));
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    }
    
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    fn add_asm_branch2(&mut self, code: String, target: MuName) {
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        self.add_asm_inst_internal(code, hashmap!{}, hashmap!{}, false, ASMBranchTarget::Conditional(target));
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    }
    
    fn add_asm_inst(
        &mut self, 
        code: String, 
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        defines: HashMap<MuID, Vec<ASMLocation>>,
        uses: HashMap<MuID, Vec<ASMLocation>>,
        is_using_mem_op: bool)
    {
        self.add_asm_inst_internal(code, defines, uses, is_using_mem_op, ASMBranchTarget::None)
    }

    fn add_asm_inst_internal(
        &mut self,
        code: String,
        defines: HashMap<MuID, Vec<ASMLocation>>,
        uses: HashMap<MuID, Vec<ASMLocation>>,
        is_using_mem_op: bool,
        target: ASMBranchTarget)
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    {
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        let line = self.line();
        trace!("asm: {}", code);
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        trace!("     defines: {:?}", defines);
        trace!("     uses: {:?}", uses);
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        let mc = self.cur_mut();
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        // put the instruction
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        mc.code.push(ASMInst::inst(code, defines, uses, is_using_mem_op, target));
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    }
    
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    fn prepare_reg(&self, op: &P<Value>, loc: usize) -> (String, MuID, ASMLocation) {
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        if cfg!(debug_assertions) {
            match op.v {
                Value_::SSAVar(_) => {},
                _ => panic!("expecting register op")
            }
        }
        
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        let str = self.asm_reg_op(op);
        let len = str.len();
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        (str, op.extract_ssa_id().unwrap(), ASMLocation::new(self.line(), loc, len))
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    }
    
    fn prepare_machine_reg(&self, op: &P<Value>) -> MuID {
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        if cfg!(debug_assertions) {
            match op.v {
                Value_::SSAVar(_) => {},
                _ => panic!("expecting machine register op")
            }
        }        
        
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        op.extract_ssa_id().unwrap()
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    }
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    #[allow(unused_assignments)]
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    fn prepare_mem(&self, op: &P<Value>, loc: usize) -> (String, HashMap<MuID, Vec<ASMLocation>>) {
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        if cfg!(debug_assertions) {
            match op.v {
                Value_::Memory(_) => {},
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                _ => panic!("expecting memory op")
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            }
        }        
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        let mut ids : Vec<MuID> = vec![];
        let mut locs : Vec<ASMLocation> = vec![];
        let mut result_str : String = "".to_string();
        
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        let mut loc_cursor : usize = loc;
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        match op.v {
            // offset(base,index,scale)
            Value_::Memory(MemoryLocation::Address{ref base, ref offset, ref index, scale}) => {
                // deal with offset
                if offset.is_some() {
                    let offset = offset.as_ref().unwrap();
                    
                    match offset.v {
                        Value_::SSAVar(id) => {
                            // temp as offset
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                            let (str, id, loc) = self.prepare_reg(offset, loc_cursor);
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                            result_str.push_str(&str);
                            ids.push(id);
                            locs.push(loc);
                            
                            loc_cursor += str.len();
                        },
                        Value_::Constant(Constant::Int(val)) => {
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                            let str = (val as i32).to_string();
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                            result_str.push_str(&str);
                            loc_cursor += str.len();
                        },
                        _ => panic!("unexpected offset type: {:?}", offset)
                    }
                }
                
                result_str.push('(');
                loc_cursor += 1; 
                
                // deal with base, base is ssa
                let (str, id, loc) = self.prepare_reg(base, loc_cursor);
                result_str.push_str(&str);
                ids.push(id);
                locs.push(loc);
                loc_cursor += str.len();
                
                // deal with index (ssa or constant)
                if index.is_some() {
                    result_str.push(',');
                    loc_cursor += 1; // plus 1 for ,                    
                    
                    let index = index.as_ref().unwrap();
                    
                    match index.v {
                        Value_::SSAVar(id) => {
                            // temp as offset
                            let (str, id, loc) = self.prepare_reg(index, loc_cursor);
                            
                            result_str.push_str(&str);
                            ids.push(id);
                            locs.push(loc);
                            
                            loc_cursor += str.len();
                        },
                        Value_::Constant(Constant::Int(val)) => {
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                            let str = (val as i32).to_string();
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                            result_str.push_str(&str);
                            loc_cursor += str.len();
                        },
                        _ => panic!("unexpected index type: {:?}", index)
                    }
                    
                    // scale
                    if scale.is_some() {
                        result_str.push(',');
                        loc_cursor += 1;
                        
                        let scale = scale.unwrap();
                        let str = scale.to_string();
                        
                        result_str.push_str(&str);
                        loc_cursor += str.len();
                    }
                }
                
                result_str.push(')');
                loc_cursor += 1;
            },
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            Value_::Memory(MemoryLocation::Symbolic{ref base, ref label}) => {
                result_str.push_str(&symbol(label.clone()));
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                loc_cursor += label.len();
                
                if base.is_some() {
                    result_str.push('(');
                    loc_cursor += 1;
                    
                    let (str, id, loc) = self.prepare_reg(base.as_ref().unwrap(), loc_cursor);
                    result_str.push_str(&str);
                    ids.push(id);
                    locs.push(loc);
                    loc_cursor += str.len();
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                    result_str.push(')');
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                    loc_cursor += 1;
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                }
            },
            _ => panic!("expect mem location as value")
        }
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        let uses : HashMap<MuID, Vec<ASMLocation>> = {
            let mut map : HashMap<MuID, Vec<ASMLocation>> = hashmap!{};
            for i in 0..ids.len() {
                let id = ids[i];
                let loc = locs[i].clone();

                if map.contains_key(&id) {
                    map.get_mut(&id).unwrap().push(loc);
                } else {
                    map.insert(id, vec![loc]);
                }
            }
            map
        };


        (result_str, uses)
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    }
    
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    fn asm_reg_op(&self, op: &P<Value>) -> String {
        let id = op.extract_ssa_id().unwrap();
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        if id < MACHINE_ID_END {
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            // machine reg
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            format!("%{}", op.name().unwrap())
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        } else {
            // virtual register, use place holder
            REG_PLACEHOLDER.clone()
        }
    }
    
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    fn mangle_block_label(&self, label: MuName) -> String {
        format!("{}_{}", self.cur().name, label)
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    }
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    fn control_flow_analysis(&mut self) {
        // control flow analysis
        let n_insts = self.line();
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        let code = self.cur_mut();
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        let ref blocks = code.blocks;
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        let ref mut asm = code.code;
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        let block_start = {
            let mut ret = vec![];
            for block in blocks.values() {
                ret.push(block.start_inst);
            }
            ret
        };
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        for i in 0..n_insts {
            // determine predecessor - if cur is not block start, its predecessor is previous insts
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            let is_block_start = block_start.contains(&i);
            if !is_block_start {
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                if i > 0 {
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                    trace!("inst {}: not a block start", i);
                    trace!("inst {}: set PREDS as previous inst {}", i, i-1);
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                    asm[i].preds.push(i - 1);
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                }
            } else {
                // if cur is a branch target, we already set its predecessor
                // if cur is a fall-through block, we set it in a sanity check pass
            }
            
            // determine successor
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            let branch = asm[i].branch.clone();
            match branch {
                ASMBranchTarget::Unconditional(ref target) => {
                    // branch to target
                    trace!("inst {}: is a branch to {}", i, target);

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                    let target_n = code.blocks.get(target).unwrap().start_inst;
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                    trace!("inst {}: branch target index is {}", i, target_n);

                    // cur inst's succ is target
                    trace!("inst {}: set SUCCS as branch target {}", i, target_n);
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                    asm[i].succs.push(target_n);
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                    // target's pred is cur
                    trace!("inst {}: set PREDS as branch source {}", target_n, i);
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                    asm[target_n].preds.push(i);
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                },
                ASMBranchTarget::Conditional(ref target) => {
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                    // branch to target
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                    trace!("inst {}: is a cond branch to {}", i, target);
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                    let target_n = code.blocks.get(target).unwrap().start_inst;
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                    trace!("inst {}: branch target index is {}", i, target_n);
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                    // cur insts' succ is target and next inst
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                    asm[i].succs.push(target_n);
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                    trace!("inst {}: set SUCCS as branch target {}", i, target_n);
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                    if i < n_insts - 1 {
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                        trace!("inst {}: set SUCCS as next inst", i + 1);
                        asm[i].succs.push(i + 1);
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                    }
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                    // target's pred is cur
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                    asm[target_n].preds.push(i);
                    trace!("inst {}: set PREDS as {}", target_n, i);
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                },
                ASMBranchTarget::None => {
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                    // not branch nor cond branch, succ is next inst
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                    trace!("inst {}: not a branch inst", i);
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                    if i < n_insts - 1 {
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                        trace!("inst {}: set SUCCS as next inst {}", i, i + 1);
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                        asm[i].succs.push(i + 1);
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                    }
                }
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            }
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        }
        
        // a sanity check for fallthrough blocks
        for i in 0..n_insts {
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            if i != 0 && asm[i].preds.len() == 0 {
                asm[i].preds.push(i - 1);
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            }
        }        
    }
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    fn finish_code_sequence_asm(&mut self) -> Box<ASMCode> {
        self.cur.take().unwrap()
    }
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}

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#[inline(always)]
fn op_postfix(op_len: usize) -> &'static str {
    match op_len {
        8  => "b",
        16 => "w",
        32 => "l",
        64 => "q",
        _  => panic!("unexpected op size: {}", op_len)
    }
}

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// general instruction emission
macro_rules! binop_no_def_r_r {
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    ($func_name: ident, $inst: expr, $op_len: expr) => {
        fn $func_name (&mut self, op1: &P<Value>, op2: &P<Value>) {
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            // with postfix
            let inst = $inst.to_string() + &op_postfix($op_len);
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            trace!("emit: {} {} {}", inst, op1, op2);
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            let (reg1, id1, loc1) = self.prepare_reg(op1, inst.len() + 1);
            let (reg2, id2, loc2) = self.prepare_reg(op2, inst.len() + 1 + reg1.len() + 1);
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            let asm = format!("{} {},{}", inst, reg1, reg2);
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            self.add_asm_inst(
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                asm,
                hashmap!{},
                hashmap!{
                    id1 => vec![loc1],
                    id2 => vec![loc2]
                },
                false
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            )
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        }
    }
}

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macro_rules! binop_no_def_imm_r {
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    ($func_name: ident, $inst: expr, $op_len: expr, $imm_ty: ty) => {
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        fn $func_name (&mut self, op1: $imm_ty, op2: &P<Value>) {
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            let inst = $inst.to_string() + &op_postfix($op_len);
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            trace!("emit: {} {} {}", inst, op1, op2);
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            let (reg2, id2, loc2) = self.prepare_reg(op2, inst.len() + 1 + 1 + op1.to_string().len() + 1);
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            let asm = format!("{} ${},{}", inst, op1, reg2);
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            self.add_asm_inst(
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                asm,
                hashmap!{},
                hashmap!{
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                    id2 => vec![loc2]
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                },
                false
            )
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        }
    }
}

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macro_rules! binop_no_def_mem_r {
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    ($func_name: ident, $inst:expr, $op_len: expr) => {
        fn $func_name (&mut self, op1: &P<Value>, op2: &P<Value>) {
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            let inst = $inst.to_string() + &op_postfix($op_len);
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            trace!("emit: {} {} {}", inst, op1, op2);
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            let (mem, mut uses)  = self.prepare_mem(op1, inst.len() + 1);
            let (reg, id1, loc1) = self.prepare_reg(op2, inst.len() + 1 + mem.len() + 1);
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            let asm = format!("{} {},{}", inst, mem, reg);
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            // merge use vec
            if uses.contains_key(&id1) {
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                let mut locs = uses.get_mut(&id1).unwrap();
                vec_utils::add_unique(locs, loc1.clone());
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            } else {
                uses.insert(id1, vec![loc1]);
            }

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            self.add_asm_inst(
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                asm,
                hashmap!{},
                uses,
                true
            )
        }
    }
}

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macro_rules! binop_def_r_r {
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    ($func_name: ident, $inst: expr, $op_len: expr) => {
        fn $func_name (&mut self, dest: &P<Value>, src: &P<Value>) {
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            let inst = $inst.to_string() + &op_postfix($op_len);
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            trace!("emit: {} {}, {} -> {}", inst, src, dest, dest);
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            let (reg1, id1, loc1) = self.prepare_reg(src, inst.len() + 1);
            let (reg2, id2, loc2) = self.prepare_reg(dest, inst.len() + 1 + reg1.len() + 1);
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            let asm = format!("{} {},{}", inst, reg1, reg2);

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            self.add_asm_inst(
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                asm,
                hashmap!{
                    id2 => vec![loc2.clone()]
                },
                hashmap!{
                    id1 => vec![loc1],
                    id2 => vec![loc2]
                },
                false
            )
        }
    }
}

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macro_rules! binop_def_r_imm {
    ($func_name: ident, $inst: expr, $op_len: expr, $imm_ty: ty) => {
        fn $func_name (&mut self, dest: &P<Value>, src: $imm_ty) {
            let inst = $inst.to_string() + &op_postfix($op_len);
            trace!("emit: {} {}, {} -> {}", inst, src, dest, dest);
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            let (reg1, id1, loc1) = self.prepare_reg(dest, inst.len() + 1 + 1 + src.to_string().len() + 1);
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            let asm = format!("{} ${},{}", inst, src, reg1);

            self.add_asm_inst(
                asm,
                hashmap!{
                    id1 => vec![loc1.clone()]
                },
                hashmap!{
                    id1 => vec![loc1]
                },
                false
            )
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        }
    }
}

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macro_rules! binop_def_r_mem {
    ($func_name: ident, $inst: expr, $op_len: expr) => {
        fn $func_name (&mut self, dest: &P<Value>, src: &P<Value>) {
            let inst = $inst.to_string() + &op_postfix($op_len);
            trace!("emit: {} {}, {} -> {}", inst, src, dest, dest);

            let (mem, mut uses) = self.prepare_mem(src, inst.len() + 1);
            let (reg, id1, loc1) = self.prepare_reg(dest, inst.len() + 1 + mem.len() + 1);

            if uses.contains_key(&id1) {
                let mut locs = uses.get_mut(&id1).unwrap();
                vec_utils::add_unique(locs, loc1.clone());
            } else {
                uses.insert(id1, vec![loc1.clone()]);
            }

            let asm = format!("{} {},{}", inst, mem, reg);

            self.add_asm_inst(
                asm,
                hashmap!{
                    id1 => vec![loc1]
                },
                uses,
                true
            )
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        }
    }
}

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macro_rules! mov_r_r {
    ($func_name: ident, $inst: expr, $op_len: expr) => {
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        fn $func_name (&mut self, dest: &P<Value>, src: &P<Value>) {
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            let inst = $inst.to_string() + &op_postfix($op_len);
            trace!("emit: {} {} -> {}", inst, src, dest);
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            let (reg1, id1, loc1) = self.prepare_reg(src, inst.len() + 1);
            let (reg2, id2, loc2) = self.prepare_reg(dest, inst.len() + 1 + reg1.len() + 1);
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            let asm = format!("{} {},{}", inst, reg1, reg2);
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            self.add_asm_inst(
                asm,
                hashmap!{
                    id2 => vec![loc2]
                },
                hashmap!{
                    id1 => vec![loc1]
                },
                false
            )
        }
    }
}

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macro_rules! mov_r_imm {
    ($func_name: ident, $inst: expr, $op_len: expr, $imm_ty: ty) => {
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        fn $func_name (&mut self, dest: &P<Value>, src: $imm_ty) {
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            let inst = $inst.to_string() + &op_postfix($op_len);
            trace!("emit: {} {} -> {}", inst, src, dest);
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            let (reg1, id1, loc1) = self.prepare_reg(dest, inst.len() + 1 + 1 + src.to_string().len() + 1);
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            let asm = format!("{} ${},{}", inst, src, reg1);
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            self.add_asm_inst(
                asm,
                hashmap!{
                    id1 => vec![loc1]
                },
                hashmap!{},
                false
            )
        }
    }
}

/// load
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macro_rules! mov_r_mem {
    ($func_name: ident, $inst: expr, $op_len: expr) => {
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        fn $func_name (&mut self, dest: &P<Value>, src: &P<Value>) {
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            let inst = $inst.to_string() + &op_postfix($op_len);
            trace!("emit: {} {} -> {}", inst, src, dest);
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            let (mem, uses) = self.prepare_mem(src, inst.len() + 1);
            let (reg, id2, loc2) = self.prepare_reg(dest, inst.len() + 1 + mem.len() + 1);
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            let asm = format!("{} {},{}", inst, mem, reg);
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            self.add_asm_inst(
                asm,
                hashmap!{
                    id2 => vec![loc2]
                },
                uses,
                true
            )
        }
    }
}

/// store
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macro_rules! mov_mem_r {
    ($func_name: ident, $inst: expr, $op_len: expr) => {
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        fn $func_name (&mut self, dest: &P<Value>, src: &P<Value>) {
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            let inst = $inst.to_string() + &op_postfix($op_len);
            trace!("emit: {} {} -> {}", inst, src, dest);
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            let (reg, id1, loc1) = self.prepare_reg(src, inst.len() + 1);
            let (mem, mut uses) = self.prepare_mem(dest, inst.len() + 1 + reg.len() + 1);
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            // the register we used for the memory location is counted as 'use'
            // use the vec from mem as 'use' (push use reg from src to it)
            if uses.contains_key(&id1) {
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                let mut locs = uses.get_mut(&id1).unwrap();
                vec_utils::add_unique(locs, loc1);
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            } else {
                uses.insert(id1, vec![loc1]);
            }

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            let asm = format!("{} {},{}", inst, reg, mem);
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            self.add_asm_inst(
                asm,
                hashmap!{},
                uses,
                true
            )
        }
    }
}

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macro_rules! mov_mem_imm {
    ($func_name: ident, $inst: expr, $op_len: expr, $imm_ty: ty) => {
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        fn $func_name (&mut self, dest: &P<Value>, src: $imm_ty) {
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            let inst = $inst.to_string() + &op_postfix($op_len);
            trace!("emit: {} {} -> {}", inst, src, dest);
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            let (mem, uses) = self.prepare_mem(dest, inst.len() + 1 + 1 + src.to_string().len() + 1);
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            let asm = format!("{} ${},{}", inst, src, mem);
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            self.add_asm_inst(
                asm,
                hashmap!{},
                uses,
                true
            )
        }
    }
}

macro_rules! emit_lea_r {
    ($func_name: ident, $op_len: expr) => {
        fn $func_name (&mut self, dest: &P<Value>, src: &P<Value>) {
            trace!("emit: lea {} -> {}", src, dest);

            let (mem, uses) = self.prepare_mem(src, 4 + 1);
            let (reg, id2, loc2) = self.prepare_reg(dest, 4 + 1 + mem.len() + 1);

            let asm = format!("lea{} {},{}", op_postfix($op_len), mem, reg);

            self.add_asm_inst(
                asm,
                hashmap!{
                    id2 => vec![loc2]
                },
                uses,
                true
            )
        }
    }
}

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impl CodeGenerator for ASMCodeGen {
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    fn start_code(&mut self, func_name: MuName) -> ValueLocation {
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        self.cur = Some(Box::new(ASMCode {
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            name: func_name.clone(),
            code: vec![],
            blocks: hashmap! {},
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            frame_size_patchpoints: vec![]
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        }));

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        // to link with C sources via gcc
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        let func_symbol = symbol(func_name.clone());
        self.add_asm_symbolic(directive_globl(func_symbol.clone()));
        self.add_asm_symbolic(format!("{}:", func_symbol.clone()));
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        ValueLocation::Relocatable(RegGroup::GPR, func_name)
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    }
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    fn finish_code(&mut self, func_name: MuName) -> (Box<MachineCode + Sync + Send>, ValueLocation) {
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        let func_end = {
            let mut symbol = func_name.clone();
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            symbol.push_str("_end");
            symbol
        };
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        self.add_asm_symbolic(directive_globl(symbol(func_end.clone())));
        self.add_asm_symbolic(format!("{}:", symbol(func_end.clone())));
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        self.control_flow_analysis();
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        (
            self.cur.take().unwrap(),
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            ValueLocation::Relocatable(RegGroup::GPR, func_end)
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        )
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    }
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    fn start_code_sequence(&mut self) {
        self.cur = Some(Box::new(ASMCode {
            name: "snippet".to_string(),
            code: vec![],
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            blocks: hashmap! {},
            frame_size_patchpoints: vec![]
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        }));
    }

    fn finish_code_sequence(&mut self) -> Box<MachineCode + Sync + Send> {
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        self.finish_code_sequence_asm()
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    }

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    fn print_cur_code(&self) {
        println!("");
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        if self.cur.is_some() {
            let code = self.cur.as_ref().unwrap();
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            println!("code for {}: ", code.name);
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            let n_insts = code.code.len();
            for i in 0..n_insts {
                let ref line = code.code[i];
                println!("#{}\t{}", i, line.code);
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            }
        } else {
            println!("no current code");
        }
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        println!("");
    }
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    fn start_block(&mut self, block_name: MuName) {
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        let label = format!("{}:", symbol(self.mangle_block_label(block_name.clone())));
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        self.add_asm_block_label(label, block_name.clone());
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        self.cur_mut().blocks.insert(block_name.clone(), ASMBlock::new());
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        let start = self.line();
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        self.cur_mut().blocks.get_mut(&block_name).unwrap().start_inst = start;
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    }
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