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"""
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libmu: Python binding for the Mu-client API.

This module works for both Python 2 and Python 3.
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For PyPy users: This module is not RPython!

The Mu reference implementation 2 contains a ``cbinding`` directory which
produces the ``libmurefimpl2start.so`` library. Users of this Python binding
should construct a MuRefImpl2StartDLL object with the pathname of that shared
object as the argument to the constructor.

This binding is a "medium-level" binding. It is more Python-friendly than the
low-level raw C API, and it does a lot of run-time type checking when API
functions are invoked, but it does not provide higher-level functionalities than
the C API, such as the LLVM-style CFG builder.
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==========
How to use
==========

Creating the Micro VM and Contexts
----------------------------------

This Python binding depends on the C binding. After building the C binding, a
shared object ``../cbinding/libmurefimpl2start.so`` will be generated. The
client needs to create a MuRefImpl2StartDLL object with the path of that SO as
its argument::

    dll = MuRefImpl2StartDLL("../cbinding/libmurefimpl2start.so")

Then a ``MuVM`` instance can be created from that object::

    mu = dll.mu_refimpl2_new()

or::

    mu = dll.mu_refimpl2_new_ex(HEAP_SIZE, GLOBAL_SIZE, STACK_SIZE)

A ``MuCtx`` instance can be created from the ``MuVM`` object::

    ctx = mu.new_context()
    ...
    ctx.close_context()

or use the ``with`` statement:

    with mu.new_context() as ctx:
        ...


Exeucte Mu Programs
-------------------

To start executing Mu programs, the client should create a stack and a thread.
As a limitation of this reference implementation, the client also needs to
invoke the ``MuVM.execute()`` method to actually execute the program. For
example::

    dll = MuRefImpl2StartDLL("../cbinding/libmurefimpl2start.so")
    mu = dll.mu_refimpl2_new()

    with mu.new_context() as ctx:
        func   = ctx.handle_from_func(ctx.id_of("@main"))
        arg1   = ctx.handle_from_int(10, 64)
        arg2   = ctx.handle_from_double(3.14)
        stack  = ctx.new_stack(func)
        thread = ctx.new_thread(stack, PassValues(arg1, arg2))

    mu.execute()    # The thread will actually run now.


Invoking API Methods
--------------------

The ``MuVM`` and the ``MuCtx`` Python object mimics the ``MuVM`` and ``MuCtx``
structs in the C API.

Function pointers in the C struct are mapped to methods of the same name in the
corresponding Python object. The first argument of the function pointers in the
C API is always a pointer to the struct itself. This first argument is omitted.
Other arguments are auto converted to the corresponding C types thanks to the
``ctypes`` module. For example::

    # MuCtx *ctx = mvm->new_context(mvm);   // C
    ctx = mu.new_context()                  # Python

    # MuDoubleValue h = ctx->handle_from_double(ctx, 3.14);     // C
    h = ctx.handle_from_double(3.14)                            # Python

IDs are Python ``int`` and names are Python ``str``.

Handles are sub-classes of the ``MuValue`` class. They wrap the underlying
C-level handles (void*) and know which ``MuCtx`` they are created from. They can
be pasesed into methods like in C. For example::

    h = ctx.handle_from_double(3.14)    # a MuDoubleValue
    num = ctx.handle_to_double(h)       # num is the Python value 3.14

    id_of = ctx.id_of   # This method is so frequently used that it is
                        # preferrable to make a shorter alias.
    func   = ctx.handle_from_func(id_of("@factorial"))
    arg    = ctx.handle_from_int(10, 64)
    stack  = ctx.new_stack(func)
    thread = ctx.new_thread(stack, PassValues(arg))

Type checks are performed on each and every method call. Handles (instances of
MuValue) must match the expected argument types. For example, if a method
expects a ``MuIntValue``, passing a ``MuValue`` will raise an error::

    const_int = ctx.handle_from_const(id_of("@CONST_INT_42"))   # MuValue
    num = ctx.handle_to_sint(const_int)     # ERROR: Expect MuIntValue, got MuValue

``MuValue`` has a ``cast`` method to cast an instance to a desired subtype.::

    const_int = ctx.handle_from_const(id_of("@CONST_INT_42")).cast(MuIntValue) # MuIntValue
    num = ctx.handle_to_sint(const_int)     # OK

The following functions usually need casting: ``handle_from_const``,
``handle_from_expose``, ``extract_value``, ``extract_element``, ``load``,
``cmpxchg``, ``atomicrmw``, ``dump_keepalives``, ``expose``.

The signatures of some methods are completely re-designed in Python to make them
more "Pythonic". For example, the ``load_bundle`` method of ``MuCtx`` takes a
single Python ``str`` and does not need the length. The ``cmpxchg`` method now
returns a pair rather than having one of them as the "output argument". The trap
handler is also completely re-designed. Such methods are defined and documented
in ``MuVM`` and ``MuCtx``. If they are explicitly defined there, the original C
function is accessible with a suffix ``_``, such as ``load_bundle_`` which is
the original C function that takes a length as argument. If they are not
explicitly defined, they follow the conventions mentioned before.


Automatically Delete Handles
----------------------------

The ``DelayedDisposer`` class can delete selected handles created in a scope.
Read the docstring.


Further Reading
---------------

It is recommended to read the docstrings in the following types: ``MuVM``,
``MuCtx``, ``MuValue`` and ``MuTrapHandler``.

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"""

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from __future__ import division, absolute_import, print_function, unicode_literals

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import sys

if sys.version_info[0] == 2:
    import _libmuprivpython2 as _priv
else:
    import _libmuprivpython3 as _priv

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import ctypes, ctypes.util

_libc = ctypes.CDLL(ctypes.util.find_library("c"))
_libc.malloc.restype = ctypes.c_void_p
_libc.malloc.argtypes = [ctypes.c_size_t]
_libc.free.restype = None
_libc.free.argtypes = [ctypes.c_void_p]
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#### Helper functions

def _assert_equal(a, b):
    if not (a == b):
        raise AssertionError("{} does not equal {}".format(a, b))

def _assert_range(v, lb, ub):
    if not (lb <= v <= ub):
        raise AssertionError("{} is not between {} and {}".format(v, lb, ub))

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from _libmuprivcommon import _assert_instance
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#### Low-level C types counterpart

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def _funcptr(restype, *paramtypes, **kwargs):
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    return ctypes.CFUNCTYPE(restype, *paramtypes, use_errno=True, **kwargs)
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CMuValue = ctypes.c_void_p
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CMuGenRefValue = CMuValue
CMuSeqValue = CMuValue

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CMuIntValue = CMuValue
CMuFloatValue = CMuValue
CMuDoubleValue = CMuValue
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CMuRefValue = CMuGenRefValue
CMuIRefValue = CMuGenRefValue
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CMuStructValue = CMuValue
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CMuArrayValue = CMuSeqValue
CMuVectorValue = CMuSeqValue
CMuFuncRefValue = CMuGenRefValue
CMuThreadRefValue = CMuGenRefValue
CMuStackRefValue = CMuGenRefValue
CMuFCRefValue = CMuGenRefValue
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CMuTagRef64Value = CMuValue
CMuUPtrValue = CMuValue
CMuUFPValue = CMuValue

CMuID = ctypes.c_uint
CMuName = ctypes.c_char_p

CMuCPtr = ctypes.c_void_p
CMuCFP = ctypes.c_void_p

CMuTrapHandlerResult = ctypes.c_int
CMuHowToResume = ctypes.c_int

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CMU_THREAD_EXIT = 0x00
CMU_REBIND_PASS_VALUES = 0x01
CMU_REBIND_THROW_EXC = 0x02
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CPtrMuValue = ctypes.POINTER(CMuValue)

CMuValuesFreer = _funcptr(
    None,   # return void
    CPtrMuValue,    # values
    CMuCPtr,        # freerdata
    )

class CMuVM(ctypes.Structure):
    pass    # Incomplete now. _fields_ will be patched later.

CPtrMuVM = ctypes.POINTER(CMuVM)

class CMuCtx(ctypes.Structure):
    pass    # Incomplete now. _fields_ will be patched later.

CPtrMuCtx = ctypes.POINTER(CMuCtx)

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CMuTrapHandler = ctypes.CFUNCTYPE(
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    # return value
    None,   # return void
    # input params
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    ctypes.POINTER(CMuCtx),                 # ctx
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    CMuThreadRefValue,                      # thread
    CMuStackRefValue,                       # stack
    ctypes.c_int,                           # wpid
    # output params
    ctypes.POINTER(CMuTrapHandlerResult),   # result
    ctypes.POINTER(CMuStackRefValue),       # new_stack
    ctypes.POINTER(CMuValue),               # values
    ctypes.POINTER(ctypes.c_int),           # nvalues
    ctypes.POINTER(CMuValuesFreer),         # freer
    ctypes.POINTER(CMuCPtr),                # freerdata
    ctypes.POINTER(CMuRefValue),            # exception
    # user-defined argument (input param)
    CMuCPtr,                                # userdata
    )

CMuMemOrd = ctypes.c_int

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MU_NOT_ATOMIC = 0x00
MU_RELAXED    = 0x01
MU_CONSUME    = 0x02
MU_ACQUIRE    = 0x03
MU_RELEASE    = 0x04
MU_ACQ_REL    = 0x05
MU_SEQ_CST    = 0x06
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CMuAtomicRMWOp = ctypes.c_int

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MU_XCHG = 0x00
MU_ADD  = 0x01
MU_SUB  = 0x02
MU_AND  = 0x03
MU_NAND = 0x04
MU_OR   = 0x05
MU_XOR  = 0x06
MU_MAX  = 0x07
MU_MIN  = 0x08
MU_UMAX = 0x09
MU_UMIN = 0x0A
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CMuCallConv = ctypes.c_int

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MU_DEFAULT = 0x00
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_MIN_SINT64 = (-1)<<63
_MAX_SINT64 = (1<<63)-1
_MAX_UINT64 = (1<<64)-1

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#### High-level types which does type checking at run time.
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class _LowLevelTypeWrapper(object):
    # _ctype_ = the low-level type
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    def _to_low_level_arg(self):
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        raise NotImplementedError()
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    @classmethod
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    def _from_low_level_retval(cls, v, high_level_struct):
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        raise NotImplementedError()
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class MuValue(_LowLevelTypeWrapper):
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    """Wrapper of the C-level CMuValue.

    Concrete API methods in MuCtx expect subclasses of this type. Use the
    ``cast`` method to cast it to more specific types.
    """

    def delete(self):
        """Delete this MuValue from its MuCtx. Equivalent to ctx.delete_value(self)"""
        self.ctx.delete_value(self)

    def cast(self,ty):
        """Cast this MuValue to a different MuValue subclass."""
        return ty(self.c_mu_value, self.ctx)

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    _ctype_ = CMuValue
    def __init__(self, c_mu_value, ctx):
        self.c_mu_value = c_mu_value
        self.ctx = ctx
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    def _to_low_level_arg(self):
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        return self.c_mu_value
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    @classmethod
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    def _from_low_level_retval(cls, v, high_level_struct):
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        _assert_instance(high_level_struct, MuCtx)
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        return cls(v, high_level_struct)
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    def __enter__(self):
        return self

    def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_val, exc_tb):
        self.delete()

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    def __str__(self):
        return "<{} handle={}>".format(type(self).__name__, self.c_mu_value)
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    def __repr__(self):
        return str(self)
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class MuGenRefValue    (MuValue):       pass
class MuSeqValue       (MuValue):       pass

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class MuIntValue       (MuValue):       _ctype_ = CMuIntValue      
class MuFloatValue     (MuValue):       _ctype_ = CMuFloatValue    
class MuDoubleValue    (MuValue):       _ctype_ = CMuDoubleValue   
class MuRefValue       (MuGenRefValue): _ctype_ = CMuRefValue      
class MuIRefValue      (MuGenRefValue): _ctype_ = CMuIRefValue     
class MuStructValue    (MuValue):       _ctype_ = CMuStructValue   
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class MuArrayValue     (MuSeqValue):    _ctype_ = CMuArrayValue    
class MuVectorValue    (MuSeqValue):    _ctype_ = CMuVectorValue   
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class MuFuncRefValue   (MuGenRefValue): _ctype_ = CMuFuncRefValue  
class MuThreadRefValue (MuGenRefValue): _ctype_ = CMuThreadRefValue
class MuStackRefValue  (MuGenRefValue): _ctype_ = CMuStackRefValue 
class MuFCRefValue     (MuGenRefValue): _ctype_ = CMuFCRefValue    
class MuTagRef64Value  (MuValue):       _ctype_ = CMuTagRef64Value 
class MuUPtrValue      (MuValue):       _ctype_ = CMuUPtrValue     
class MuUFPValue       (MuValue):       _ctype_ = CMuUFPValue      
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# Trap handling

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class TrapHandlerResult(object):
    def __init__(self):
        raise NotImplementedError()

class ThreadExit(TrapHandlerResult):
    def __init__(self):
        pass

class Rebind(TrapHandlerResult):
    def __init__(self, stack, how_to_resume):
        self.stack = stack
        self.how_to_resume = how_to_resume

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# Binding threads to stacks. Used by new_stack and trap handling

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class HowToResume(object):
    def __init__(self, *values):
        raise NotImplementedError()

class PassValues(HowToResume):
    def __init__(self, *values):
        self.values = values

class ThrowExc(HowToResume):
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    def __init__(self, exc):
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        self.exc = exc

class MuTrapHandler(object):
    def handle_trap(self, ctx, thread, stack, wpid):
        """Handle trap.

        This method is called when a trap is triggered by the micro VM. This
        method should handle the trap and tell the micro VM thread how to
        resume.

        Args:
            ctx: The MuCtx created by the micro VM for the trap handler to use.
                The trap handler should not close it.
            thread: A MuThreadRefValue of the thread that triggered the trap.
            stack: A MuStackRefValue of the current stack of the thread which
                triggered the trap.
            wpid: The watch-point ID if the trap is triggered by a WATCHPOINT.
                If it is triggered by TRAP, wpid==0.

        Returns:
            A TrapHandlerResult object which specifies how the thread that
            caused the trap should continue. Possible values are:

            ThreadExit(): The thread stops. The stack remains unbound.

            Rebind(new_stack, how_to_resume): The thread re-binds to a stack.

            In the case of Rebind:

            new_stack: The new stack the current thread should bind to after
                this trap. It may or may not be the same as the stack argument.

            how_to_resume: A HowToResume object which specifies how to bind a
                thread to the new_stack. Possible values are:

            PassValues(values...): The stack will continue normally, and the
                stack receives the list of values.

            ThrowExc(exc): The stack will continue exceptionally. exc is a
                MuRefValue which refers to the exception to be thrown to the
                stack.
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        Examples:
            Stop the current thread::

                return ThreadExit()

            Rebind to the original stack and pass values::

                h1 = ctx.handle_from_xxxxxxxx(xxxxx)
                h2 = ctx.handle_from_xxxxxxxx(xxxxx)
                h3 = ctx.handle_from_xxxxxxxx(xxxxx)
                return Rebind(stack, PassValues(h1, h2, h3))

            Rebind to the original stack and throw an exception::

                h = ctx.new_fixed(ctx.id_of("@MyExceptionType"))
                return Rebind(stack, ThrowExc(h1))
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        """
        raise NotImplementedError()

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# Expose Python objects to native programs
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class _ObjectExposer(object):
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    """ Expose Python objects to native programs

    Pointers are not given out, but native programs hold "keys" (i.e. an int
    uniquely assigned to the object) to refer to Python objects.
    """
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    def __init__(self):
        self._dic = {}
        self._next_key = 1

    def _get_key(self):
        while True:
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            key = self._next_key
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            self._next_key = (self._next_key + 1) & _MAX_UINT64
            if key not in self._dic:
                break
        return key

    def expose(self, obj):
        key = self._get_key()
        self._dic[key] = obj
        return key

    def get(self, key):
        return self._dic[key]

    def unexpose(self, key):
        if key in self._dic:
            del self._dic[key]
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_trap_user_data_exposer = _ObjectExposer()

def _word_array_malloc(nelems):
    return _libc.malloc(ctypes.sizeof(CMuValue*nelems))

def _word_array_free(addr, freerdata):
    _libc.free(addr)

_THE_LOW_LEVEL_WORD_ARRAY_FREE_PTR = CMuValuesFreer(_word_array_free)
    
def _the_low_level_trap_handler(
        c_ctx, c_thread, c_stack, c_wpid,
        c_result, c_new_stack, c_values, c_nvalues, c_freer, c_freerdata,
        c_exception,
        c_userdata_key):

    userdata = _trap_user_data_exposer.get(c_userdata_key)
    muvm, trap_handler = userdata

    ctx = MuCtx(c_ctx, muvm)
    thread = MuThreadRefValue(c_thread, ctx)
    stack = MuStackRefValue(c_stack, ctx)
    wpid = c_wpid

    result = trap_handler.handle_trap(ctx, thread, stack, wpid)

    _assert_instance(result, TrapHandlerResult)

    if isinstance(result, ThreadExit):
        c_result.contents.value = CMU_THREAD_EXIT
        c_new_stack.contents.value = 0
        c_values.contents.value = None
        c_nvalues.contents.value = 0
        c_freer.contents.value = None
        c_freerdata.contents.value = None
        c_exception.contents.value = None
    else: # Rebind
        new_stack = result.stack
        htr = result.how_to_resume
        if isinstance(htr, PassValues):
            values = htr.values
            nvalues = len(values)

            cvalues_array_addr = _word_array_malloc(nvalues)
            cvalues_array = (CMuValue*nvalues).from_address(cvalues_array_addr)

            for i,v in enumerate(values):
                cvalues_array[i] = v.c_mu_value

            c_result.contents.value = CMU_REBIND_PASS_VALUES
            c_new_stack.contents.value = new_stack.c_mu_value
            c_values.contents.value = cvalues_array_addr
            c_nvalues.contents.value = nvalues
            c_freer.contents.value = _THE_LOW_LEVEL_WORD_ARRAY_FREE_PTR
            c_freerdata.contents.value = None
            c_exception.contents.value = None

        else:   # ThrowExc
            exc = htr.exc

            c_result.contents.value = CMU_REBIND_THROW_EXC
            c_new_stack.contents.value = new_stack.c_mu_value
            c_values.contents.value = None
            c_nvalues.contents.value = 0
            c_freer.contents.value = None
            c_freerdata.contents.value = None
            c_exception.contents.value = exc.c_mu_value

    return

_THE_LOW_LEVEL_TRAP_HANDLER_PTR = CMuTrapHandler(_the_low_level_trap_handler)
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# Struct of methods

class _StructOfMethodsWrapper(_LowLevelTypeWrapper):
    """ High-level wrapper of "struct-of-method" types. """

    # _high_level_methods need to be assigned externally.
    # _muvm needs to refer to the associated MuVM object.

    def __init__(self, struct_ptr, parent=None):
        """
        struct_ptr: pointer to the underlying C struct

        parent: the Python object that returns this object. For example, If a
        MuVM returns a MuCtx via its ``new_context`` method, then the MuVM is
        the parent of the MuCtx.
        """
        self._struct_ptr = struct_ptr
        self._parent = parent

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    def _to_low_level_arg(self):
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        return self._struct_ptr

    @classmethod
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    def _from_low_level_retval(cls, v, high_level_struct):
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        return cls(v, high_level_struct)

    def _high_level_method(self, name):
        return self._high_level_methods[name]

    def _low_level_func(self, name):
        struct_ptr = self._struct_ptr
        ptr_contents = struct_ptr.contents
        func = getattr(ptr_contents, name)
        return func

    def __getattr__(self, name):
        high_level_method = self._high_level_method(name)
        return lambda *a: high_level_method(self, *a)

    def __str__(self):
        return "<{} _struct_ptr={}>".format(type(self).__name__,
                self._struct_ptr)

    def __repr__(self):
        return str(self)

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class MuVM(_StructOfMethodsWrapper):
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    """An instance of the Mu micro VM."""

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    _c_struct_type_ = CMuVM
    _ctype_ = ctypes.POINTER(_c_struct_type_)

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    def __init__(self, struct_ptr, dll):
        super(self.__class__, self).__init__(struct_ptr, dll)

        self.muvm = self
        self._mu_error_addr = self._low_level_func("get_mu_error_ptr_")(struct_ptr)
        self._mu_error = ctypes.c_int.from_address(self._mu_error_addr)

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        self._cur_user_data_key = None

    # Mu writes to the memory location self._mu_error_addr when it throws an
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    # exception before returning to C. It is specific to this implementation and
    # is only used internally in the Python binding.
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    def _get_mu_error(self):
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        return self._mu_error.value
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    def _set_mu_error(self, v):
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        self._mu_error.value = v
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    ## The following overrides the C functions to make them more Pythonic
    
    def set_trap_handler(self, trap_handler):
        """Set the trap handler of this MuVM.

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        trap_handler is any Python MuTrapHandler object.
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        """

        userdata = (self, trap_handler)

        old_key = self._cur_user_data_key
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        new_key = _trap_user_data_exposer.expose(userdata)
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        self.set_trap_handler_(_THE_LOW_LEVEL_TRAP_HANDLER_PTR, new_key)

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        _trap_user_data_exposer.unexpose(old_key)
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        self._cur_user_data_key = new_key
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class MuCtx(_StructOfMethodsWrapper):
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    """A Mu context.

    It holds MuValues and thread-local resources for the client.
    """

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    _c_struct_type_ = CMuCtx
    _ctype_ = ctypes.POINTER(_c_struct_type_)

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    def __init__(self, struct_ptr, muvm):
        super(self.__class__, self).__init__(struct_ptr, muvm)

        self.muvm = muvm

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    ## The following methods enable the with statement.

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    def __enter__(self):
        return self

    def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_val, exc_tb):
        if exc_type != None:
            return False

        self.close_context()

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    ## The following overrides the C functions to make them more Pythonic
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    def load_bundle(self, bundle_str):
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        """Load a Bundle.

        Arguments:
            bundle_str: a str or unicode as the text-based bundle.
        """
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        ascii_bundle = _priv._encode_ascii(bundle_str)
        return self.load_bundle_(ascii_bundle, len(ascii_bundle))
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    def load_hail(self, hail_str):
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        """Load a HAIL script.

        Arguments:
            bundle_str: a str or unicode as the text-based HAIL script.
        """
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        ascii_bundle = _priv._encode_ascii(hail_str)
        return self.load_hail_(ascii_bundle, len(ascii_bundle))
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    def handle_from_int(self, value, length):
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        """Convert a Python int to a Mu handle.

        Arguments:
            value: a Python int or long. Must be representable in 64-bit signed
            or unsigned number

            length: the desired bit length of the Mu int value

        Returns:
            a MuIntValue
        """
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        _priv._assert_int_like(value)
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        _assert_range(length, 0, 64)
        if _MIN_SINT64 <= value <= _MAX_SINT64:
            return self.handle_from_sint64_(value, length)
        elif 0 <= value <= _MAX_UINT64:
            return self.handle_from_uint64_(value, length)
        else:
            raise ValueError("value {} out of 64-bit range".format(value))

    def handle_to_sint(self, value):
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        """Convert Mu int handle to a Python int, treating it as signed.

        Arguments:
            value: a MuIntValue.

        Returns:
            a Python int
        """
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        return self.handle_to_sint64_(value)

    def handle_to_uint(self, value):
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        """Convert Mu int handle to a Python int, treating it as unsigned.

        Arguments:
            value: a MuIntValue.

        Returns:
            a Python int
        """
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        return self.handle_to_uint64_(value)
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    def delete_values(self, *values):
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        """Delete all values in the ``values`` argument. ``values`` is an
        iterable of MuValue."""
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        for value in values:
            self.delete_value(value)

    def insert_element(self, value, index, newval):
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        """Wrapper of the underlying ``insert_element``. The result is
        automatically cast to the same type as ``value``, which must be either
        ``MuArrayValue`` or ``MuVectorValue``."""
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        return self.insert_element_(value, index, newval).cast(type(value))

    def load(self, loc, ord=MU_NOT_ATOMIC):
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        """Wrapper of the underlying ``load``. The memory order is optional and
        defaults to MU_NOT_ATOMIC."""
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        _assert_instance(loc, MuIRefValue)
        return self.load_(ord, loc)

    def store(self, loc, newval, ord=MU_NOT_ATOMIC):
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        """Wrapper of the underlying ``store``. The memory order is optional and
        defaults to MU_NOT_ATOMIC."""
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        _assert_instance(loc, MuIRefValue)
        return self.store_(ord, loc, newval)

    def cmpxchg(self, loc, expected, desired, weak=False, ord_succ=MU_SEQ_CST,
            ord_fail=MU_SEQ_CST):
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        """Wrapper of the underlying ``cmpxchg``.

        It is strong by default.

        The memory orders are optional and defaults to MU_NOT_ATOMIC.

        The return value is a pair (value, succ), where value is a MuValue of
        the old value, and succ is a bool which indicates whether this operation
        is successful.
        """
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        _assert_instance(loc, MuIRefValue)
        weak = int(weak)
        succ_buf = ctypes.c_int(0)
        rv = self.cmpxchg_(ord_succ, ord_fail, weak, loc, expected, desired,
                ctypes.byref(succ_buf))
        succ = succ_buf.value != 0
        return (rv, succ)

    def atomicrmw(self, op, loc, opnd, ord=MU_SEQ_CST):
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        """Wrapper of the underlying ``atomicrmw``. The memory order is optional
        and defaults to MU_SEQ_CST."""
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        _assert_instance(loc, MuIRefValue)
        return self.atomicrmw_(ord, op, loc, opnd)

    def fence(self, ord=MU_SEQ_CST):
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        """Wrapper of the underlying ``fence``. The memory order is optional and
        defaults to MU_SEQ_CST."""
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        return self.fence_(ord)

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    def new_thread(self, stack, how_to_resume):
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        """Wrapper of the underlying ``new_thread``.
        
        This method now takes only a stack and a ``HowToResume`` value which can
        be either ``PassValues`` or ``ThrowExc``.

        Arguments:
            stack: a MuStackRefValue, the initial stack the new thread should
                bind to.
            how_to_resume: a HowToResume value. See the docstring of
                MuTrapHandler.
        
        Returns:
            a MuThreadRefValue, referring to the newly created thread.
        """
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        _assert_instance(how_to_resume, HowToResume)
        if isinstance(how_to_resume, PassValues):
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            htr = CMU_REBIND_PASS_VALUES 
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            values = how_to_resume.values
            cvals_ty = CMuValue * len(values)
            cvals = cvals_ty()
            for i,v in enumerate(values):
                cvals[i] = v.c_mu_value
            cnvals = len(values)
            cexc = 0
        else:
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            htr = CMU_REBIND_THROW_EXC
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            exc = how_to_resume.exc
            cvals = None
            cnvals = 0
            cexc = exc.c_mu_value

        return self.new_thread_(stack, htr, cvals, cnvals, cexc)

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    def dump_keepalives(self, cursor, nvals):
        """Wrapper of the underlying ``dump_keepalives``.
        
        This method now takes a cursor and the number of keep-alive variables. It
        returns a list of handles.

        Arguments:
            cursor: a MuFCRefValue, the frame cursor to dump values from.

            nvals: a Python int, the number of keep-alive variables. Must be the
                same as the number of actual keep-alive variables of the current
                instruction. Since the client genereted all bundles, it should
                have full knowledge of the number of keep-alive variables and
                their types.
        
        Returns:
            a list of MuValue. Each of them is a keep-alive variable. They are
            in the same order as the KEEPALIVE clause in the Mu IR.
        """
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        cvals = (CMuValue * nvals)()
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        self.dump_keepalives_(cursor, cvals)
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        return [MuValue(cvals[i], self) for i in range(nvals)]

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def _to_low_level_type(ty):
    return (None if ty == None else 
            ty._ctype_ if issubclass(ty, _LowLevelTypeWrapper) else
            ty)

def _to_low_level_arg(arg):
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    return (arg._to_low_level_arg() if isinstance(arg, _LowLevelTypeWrapper) else
            _priv._encode_ascii(arg) if _priv._is_str_like(arg) else
            arg)
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def _from_low_level_retval(restype, low_level_rv, self):
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    return (restype._from_low_level_retval(low_level_rv, self)
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            if isinstance(restype, type) and issubclass(restype, _LowLevelTypeWrapper) else
            _priv._decode_ascii(low_level_rv) if _priv._is_str_like(low_level_rv) else
            low_level_rv)
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def _make_high_level_method(name, expected_nargs, restype, argtypes):
    def wrapper(self, *args):
        nargs = len(args)
        if nargs != expected_nargs:
            raise TypeError("{}() takes {} positional argument but "
                    "{} were given".format(name, expected_nargs, nargs))

        low_level_args = []
        for i, arg in enumerate(args):
            argtype = argtypes[i]
            if issubclass(argtype, _LowLevelTypeWrapper):
                # type checking
                if not isinstance(arg, argtype):
                    raise TypeError("Method {}, arg {}, expected type {}, "
                            "actual type: {}, value: {}".format(name, i,
                                argtypes[i], type(arg), arg))

            low_level_arg = _to_low_level_arg(arg)

            low_level_args.append(low_level_arg)

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        struct_ptr = self._struct_ptr
        low_level_func = self._low_level_func(name)

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        self.muvm._set_mu_error(0)
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        low_level_rv = low_level_func(struct_ptr, *low_level_args)
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        mu_error = self.muvm._get_mu_error()
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        if mu_error != 0:
            raise RuntimeError("Error in Mu. mu_error={}".format(mu_error))

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        rv = _from_low_level_retval(restype, low_level_rv, self)
        return rv

    return wrapper

def _initialize_methods(high_level_class, methods):
    """
    This function does two things:

    1. Populate the high_level_class (such as MuVM) with high-level methods.
    2. Populate the _field_ field of its low-level Structure (such as CMuVM).

    ``high_level_class`` is MuVM or MuCtx.
    
    ``method`` is a list of (name, restype, argtypes), where both restype and
    the elements of argtypes are high-level types, such as MuVM or MuIntValue.
    Type checking will be performed according to these descriptions in the
    generated high-level methods. C-level return values will be wrapped in
    high-level types.
    """

    low_level_class = high_level_class._c_struct_type_

    fields = [("header", ctypes.c_void_p)]
    high_level_methods = {}

    objtype_p = ctypes.POINTER(low_level_class)

    for name, restype, argtypes in methods:
        # make low-level struct field (function pointer)
        low_level_restype = _to_low_level_type(restype)
        low_level_argtypes = [_to_low_level_type(ty) for ty in argtypes]
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        print("Python binding:", name, low_level_restype, low_level_argtypes)
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        funcptr = _funcptr(
                low_level_restype, # return value
                objtype_p, *low_level_argtypes # params. Start with a struct ptr
                )
        fields.append((name, funcptr))

        expected_nargs = len(argtypes)
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        # make high-level method
        wrapper = _make_high_level_method(name, expected_nargs, restype,
                argtypes)
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        high_level_methods[name] = wrapper

    low_level_class._fields_ = fields
    high_level_class._high_level_methods = high_level_methods

_initialize_methods(MuVM, [
    ("new_context", MuCtx, []),
    ("id_of", CMuID, [CMuName]),
    ("name_of", CMuName, [CMuID]),
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    ("set_trap_handler_", None, [CMuTrapHandler, CMuCPtr]),
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    ("execute", None, []),
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    ("get_mu_error_ptr_", ctypes.c_void_p, []),
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    ])

_initialize_methods(MuCtx, [
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    ("id_of"                , CMuID             , [CMuName]),
    ("name_of"              , CMuName           , [CMuID]),

    ("close_context"        , None              , []),

    ("load_bundle_"         , None              , [ctypes.c_char_p, ctypes.c_int]),
    ("load_hail_"           , None              , [ctypes.c_char_p, ctypes.c_int]),

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    ("handle_from_sint8_"   , MuIntValue        , [ctypes.c_int8,   ctypes.c_int]),
    ("handle_from_uint8_"   , MuIntValue        , [ctypes.c_uint8,  ctypes.c_int]),
    ("handle_from_sint16_"  , MuIntValue        , [ctypes.c_int16,  ctypes.c_int]),
    ("handle_from_uint16_"  , MuIntValue        , [ctypes.c_uint16, ctypes.c_int]),
    ("handle_from_sint32_"  , MuIntValue        , [ctypes.c_int32,  ctypes.c_int]),
    ("handle_from_uint32_"  , MuIntValue        , [ctypes.c_uint32, ctypes.c_int]),
    ("handle_from_sint64_"  , MuIntValue        , [ctypes.c_int64,  ctypes.c_int]),
    ("handle_from_uint64_"  , MuIntValue        , [ctypes.c_uint64, ctypes.c_int]),
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    ("handle_from_float"    , MuFloatValue      , [ctypes.c_float ]),
    ("handle_from_double"   , MuDoubleValue     , [ctypes.c_double]),
    ("handle_from_ptr"      , MuUPtrValue       , [CMuID, CMuCPtr ]),
    ("handle_from_fp"       , MuUFPValue        , [CMuID, CMuCFP  ]),

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    ("handle_to_sint8_"     , ctypes.c_int8     , [MuIntValue]),
    ("handle_to_uint8_"     , ctypes.c_uint8    , [MuIntValue]),
    ("handle_to_sint16_"    , ctypes.c_int16    , [MuIntValue]),
    ("handle_to_uint16_"    , ctypes.c_uint16   , [MuIntValue]),
    ("handle_to_sint32_"    , ctypes.c_int32    , [MuIntValue]),
    ("handle_to_uint32_"    , ctypes.c_uint32   , [MuIntValue]),
    ("handle_to_sint64_"    , ctypes.c_int64    , [MuIntValue]),
    ("handle_to_uint64_"    , ctypes.c_uint64   , [MuIntValue]),
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    ("handle_to_float"      , ctypes.c_float    , [MuFloatValue ]),
    ("handle_to_double"     , ctypes.c_double   , [MuDoubleValue]),
    ("handle_to_ptr"        , CMuCPtr           , [MuUPtrValue  ]),
    ("handle_to_fp"         , CMuCFP            , [MuUFPValue   ]),

    ("handle_from_const"    , MuValue           , [CMuID]),
    ("handle_from_global"   , MuIRefValue       , [CMuID]),
    ("handle_from_func"     , MuFuncRefValue    , [CMuID]),
    ("handle_from_expose"   , MuValue           , [CMuID]),

    ("delete_value"         , None              , [MuValue]),

    ("ref_eq"               , ctypes.c_int      , [MuGenRefValue, MuGenRefValue]),
    ("ref_ult"              , ctypes.c_int      , [MuIRefValue, MuIRefValue]),

    ("extract_value"        , MuValue           , [MuStructValue, ctypes.c_int]),
    ("insert_value"         , MuStructValue     , [MuStructValue, ctypes.c_int, MuValue]),
                            
    ("extract_element"      , MuValue           , [MuSeqValue, MuIntValue]),
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    ("insert_element_"      , MuSeqValue        , [MuSeqValue, MuIntValue, MuValue]),
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    ("new_fixed"            , MuRefValue        , [CMuID]),
    ("new_hybrid"           , MuRefValue        , [CMuID, MuIntValue]),

    ("refcast"              , MuGenRefValue     , [MuGenRefValue, CMuID]),

    ("get_iref"             , MuIRefValue       , [MuRefValue]),
    ("get_field_iref"       , MuIRefValue       , [MuIRefValue, ctypes.c_int]),
    ("get_elem_iref"        , MuIRefValue       , [MuIRefValue, MuIntValue]),
    ("shift_iref"           , MuIRefValue       , [MuIRefValue, MuIntValue]),
    ("get_var_part_iref"    , MuIRefValue       , [MuIRefValue]),

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    ("load_"                , MuValue           , [CMuMemOrd, MuIRefValue]),
    ("store_"               , None              , [CMuMemOrd, MuIRefValue, MuValue]),
    ("cmpxchg_"             , MuValue           , [CMuMemOrd, CMuMemOrd,
        ctypes.c_int, MuIRefValue, MuValue, MuValue,
        ctypes.POINTER(ctypes.c_int)]),
    ("atomicrmw_"           , MuValue           , [CMuMemOrd, CMuAtomicRMWOp, MuIRefValue, MuValue]),
    ("fence_"               , None              , [CMuMemOrd]),
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    ("new_stack"            , MuStackRefValue   , [MuFuncRefValue]),
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    ("new_thread_"          , MuThreadRefValue  , [MuStackRefValue, CMuHowToResume,
        ctypes.POINTER(CMuValue), ctypes.c_int, CMuRefValue]),
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    ("kill_stack"           , None              , [MuStackRefValue]),

    ("new_cursor"           , MuFCRefValue      , [MuStackRefValue]),
    ("next_frame"           , None              , [MuFCRefValue]),
    ("copy_cursor"          , MuFCRefValue      , [MuFCRefValue]),
    ("close_cursor"         , None              , [MuFCRefValue]),

    ("cur_func"             , CMuID             , [MuFCRefValue]),
    ("cur_func_ver"         , CMuID             , [MuFCRefValue]),
    ("cur_inst"             , CMuID             , [MuFCRefValue]),
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    ("dump_keepalives_"     , None              , [MuFCRefValue,
        ctypes.POINTER(CMuValue)]),
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    ("pop_frames_to"        , None              , [MuFCRefValue]),
    ("push_frame"           , None              , [MuStackRefValue, MuFuncRefValue]),

    ("tr64_is_fp"           , ctypes.c_int      , [MuTagRef64Value]),
    ("tr64_is_int"          , ctypes.c_int      , [MuTagRef64Value]),
    ("tr64_is_ref"          , ctypes.c_int      , [MuTagRef64Value]),
    ("tr64_to_fp"           , MuDoubleValue     , [MuTagRef64Value]),
    ("tr64_to_int"          , MuIntValue        , [MuTagRef64Value]),
    ("tr64_to_ref"          , MuRefValue        , [MuTagRef64Value]),
    ("tr64_to_tag"          , MuIntValue        , [MuTagRef64Value]),
    ("tr64_from_fp"         , MuTagRef64Value   , [MuDoubleValue]),
    ("tr64_from_int"        , MuTagRef64Value   , [MuIntValue]),
    ("tr64_from_ref"        , MuTagRef64Value   , [MuRefValue, MuIntValue]),

    ("enable_watchpoint"    , None              , [ctypes.c_int]),
    ("disable_watchpoint"   , None              , [ctypes.c_int]),

    ("pin"                  , MuUPtrValue       , [MuValue]),
    ("unpin"                , None              , [MuValue]),

    ("expose"               , MuValue           , [MuFuncRefValue, CMuCallConv, MuIntValue]),
    ("unexpose"             , None              , [CMuCallConv, MuValue]),
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    ])
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class DelayedDisposer(object):
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    """Automatically delete MuValues in the scope.

    Suggested usage::

        with mu.new_context() as ctx:
            ...

            with DelayedDisposer() as x:
                h1 = x << ctx.handle_from_int(1, 64)
                ...
            # h1 is deleted here

            for i in range(100):
                with DelayedDisposer() as x:
                    hi = x << ctx.handle_from_int(i, 64)
                    ...
                # hi is deleted here
    """
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    def __init__(self):
        self.garbages = []

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    def __enter__(self):
        return self

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    def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_val, exc_tb):
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        if exc_type != None:
            return False

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        self.delete_all()
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        return False
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    def add(self, handle):
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        """Add handle as a MuValue to be disposed. If handle is not a MuValue,
        treat it as a list of handles."""
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        if isinstance(handle, MuValue):
            self.garbages.append(handle)
        else:
            for h in handle:
                self.add(h)
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        return handle

    def __lshift__(self, rhs):
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        """The same as self.add(rhs)"""
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        return self.add(rhs)

    def delete_all(self):
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        """Delete all added handles"""
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        for h in reversed(self.garbages):
            h.delete();

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class MuRefImpl2StartDLL(object):
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    """The factory object of MuVM instances."""

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    def __init__(self, dll):
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        """
        dll is a CDLL object of the "libmurefimpl2start.so" library, or a
        pathname to it. In the latter case, a CDLL will be created.
        """
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        if _priv._is_str_like(dll):
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            dll = ctypes.CDLL(dll)

        dll.mu_refimpl2_new.restype = CPtrMuVM
        dll.mu_refimpl2_new.argtypes = []

        dll.mu_refimpl2_new_ex.restype = CPtrMuVM
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        dll.mu_refimpl2_new_ex.argtypes = [ctypes.c_int64,
                ctypes.c_int64, ctypes.c_int64]
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        dll.mu_refimpl2_close.restype = None
        dll.mu_refimpl2_close.argtypes = [CPtrMuVM]

        self.dll = dll

    def mu_refimpl2_new(self):
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        """Create a MuVM instance using the default heap/global/stack sizes."""
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        ptr = self.dll.mu_refimpl2_new()
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        return MuVM(ptr, self)
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    def mu_refimpl2_new_ex(self, heap_size, global_size, stack_size):
        """Create a MuVM instance using custom heap/global/stack sizes.

        heap_size, global_size, stack_size are the sizes of the GC heap, global
        memory and each stack. All of them are in bytes.
        """
        ptr = self.dll.mu_refimpl2_new_ex(heap_size, global_size, stack_size)
        return MuVM(ptr, self)

    def mu_refimpl2_close(self, muvm):
        """Close a MuVM instance. Currently does nothing, i.e. MuVM are never
        really closed."""
        self.dll.mu_refimpl2_close(muvm._struct_ptr)

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